Understand and Apply Properties of Operations and the Relationship Between Addition and Subtraction

3. Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract. [Students need not use formal terms for these properties.] Examples:  If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.)

4. Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8. Add and subtract within 20.