4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
c. Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking).
5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
a. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
b. Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes).
c. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).
d. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.
6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).