Conventions of Standard English
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
b. Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
c. Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
e. Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
b. Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
c. Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
d. Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
e. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
Knowledge of Language
3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
b. Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects, registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems.
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).
c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
a. Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
b. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
c. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words.
6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).